Corn, Beans and Squash - New World Harvest 
From Native Americans, Colonists learned to plant squash to counteract the debilitating effect of growing corn year after year in the same field. The words pumpkin and squash were used interchangeably. Although winter squash are the ones we hear about, summer squash were also popular and provided a welcomed addition to their diet. Unlike the winter variety summer squash could not be stored for long periods but it's yield was so abundant it was also used as feed for cattle and other livestock. 

Green Corn Pudding
Green corn pudding was a favorite in many homes. The secret in this recipe is cutting down through the center of the kernels (not between the kernels) before scraping off the kernels so that the "milk" goes into the pudding. 

4 ears of corn
3 egg yolks
2 tablespoons butter melted
3 stiffly beaten egg whites
2 tablespoons sugar
1 teaspoon salt
2 cups milk

With sharp knife make cuts down the center of kernel each row. Scrape the cob, Measure 1 3/4 cups of corn. Beat egg yolks till thick and lemon colored. Stir in corn, butter and salt. Slowly beat in milk. Fold in egg whites. Bake in 8x8x2-inch baking dish at 350 for 45 to 50 minutes. Serves 6 to 8. 

Hasty Pudding 
1 cup yellow corn meal
Maple syrup, brown sugar, molasses, or light cream

In a bowl combine corn meal and 1 cup cold water. In heavy saucepan bring 3 cups water and 1/2 teaspoon salt to boiling. Carefully stir in the corn meal mixture making sure it does not lump. Cook over low heat, stirring occasionally for 10 to 15 minutes. Serve pudding with pat of butter and maple syrup, brown sugar, molasses or light cream. Makes 6 or 7 servings. 

Indian Pudding
3 cups milk
1/2 cup molasses
1/3 cup yellow cornmeal
1/2 teaspoon ginger
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1 tablespoon butter

In saucepan mix milk and molasses; stir in cornmeal, ginger, cinnamon and1/4 teaspoon salt. Cook and stir until thick, about 10 minutes. Stir in butter. Turn into a 1-quart casserole. Bake uncovered at 300 about 1 hour. Serves 6. 

Indian Corn Sticks
1 cup cornmeal
1/2 cup all-purpose flour
3/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup milk
1 egg
2 tablespoons lard, melted

Mix cornmeal flour and salt. Add milk, egg lard. Beat until smooth. Fill well greased corn stick pans almost to top. (or use greased 8x8x2-inch baking pan) Bake 425 for 12 to 15 minutes. Serve hot corn sticks with molasses or maple syrup. Makes 6 or 7. 

Johnnycakes (Journey cake)
2 beaten eggs
1 cup hot water
3/4 cup milk
2 tablespoons lard , melted
1 teaspoon salt
2 cups yellow cornmeal
Maple syrup

In bowl mix eggs, water, milk, lard and salt. Stir in cornmeal. Stir well before making each johnnycake For each cake, place 1/4 cup batter on a hot, well greased griddle, spreading to 1/4 inch thick. Cook until golden, 2 to 3 minutes per side. Serve warm with butter and syrup. Makes 12 to 14. 

2 cups fresh or frozen baby Lima beans
2 ounces salt pork
1/2 cup water
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon sugar
Dash pepper
2 cups fresh or frozen whole kernel corn
1/3 cup light cream
1 tablespoon all purpose flour

In saucepan combine beans, pork, water, salt, sugar and pepper. Cover; simmer until beans are almost tender. Stir in corn. Cover and simmer until vegetables are tender. Remove salt pork. Blend cream slowly into flour. Stir into vegetables. Cook and stir until thickened and bubbly. Serves 6. 

Colonists quickly came to depend on corn as a vital staple. When times were hard it was not uncommon to eat some form of corn three times a day - fresh, dried or ground into cornmeal. Lacking most fruits and vegetables during the winter months resourceful women brought variety to meals by using cornmeal to make a wide selection of porridges, breads, puddings, pancakes and pies. Leftover cornmeal porridge was sliced and fried for breakfast. Later Colonists used an old Indian method to create pudding that featured molasses, butter and spices. 

Boston Baked Beans
One of the hearty main dishes was Boston Baked Beans. While Boston gets the credit for this dish it was actually popular throughout the colonies. Since this dish could be made a day ahead it was often a favorite recipe for those whose religion restricted work on the Sabbath. Often it was served fresh for Saturday night and either warm or cold for Sunday noon. 

3 lbs dried pea beans or navy beans (6 cups)
1 1/2 cups dark molasses
1 tablespoon dry mustard
1 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon pepper
1/2 pound salt pork diced
1 large onion chopped

Rinse beans; in a large kettle combine beans and 24 cups (6 quarts) cold water. Bring to boiling, simmer 2 minutes. Remove from heat. Cover, let stand 1 hour. (or add beans to water and soak overnight) Bring to boiling; simmer till beans are tender, about one hour. Drain, reserving liquid. Combine molasses, mustard, 1 teaspoon salt, 1/2 teaspoon pepper and 3 cups cooking liquid. In a 6 quart bean pot, mix beans, salt pork and onion. Stir in molasses mixture. Cover and bake at 300 for 31/2 to 4 hours, stirring occasionally. Add more reserved cooking liquid if needed. Serves 15. 

Pease Soup
Soups were America's first convenience foods. Women often left soup simmering on the fire and added leftover vegetables and meat each day. No time to fix a meal? There was always soup to eat hot and ready.

8 cups water
1 pound dry green split peas (2 14/ cups)
1 pound beef stew meat, cut in 1/2 inch cubes
1/4 lb bacon strips
1 cup chopped onion
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon crushed dried basil
1/4 teaspoon marjoram
1/8 teaspoon pepper
3 cups chopped spinach
2 cups sliced celery

In a large Dutch oven combine bacon, beef cubes, onion and celery. Stir on stovetop medium heat until bacon is crispy beef is browned and onions are tender. Crumble bacon. Drain excess fat. Add water, peas, salt, basil, marjoram and pepper. Bring mixture to boiling. Cover and reduce heat. Simmer for about 1 1/2 hours stirring occasionally. Add spinach cover and cook about 30 minutes more. Serve garnished with croutons. Serves 8. 

For early colonists pumpkin was often the difference between between survival and starvation. It was fit only for peasants said Europe. But the Colonists soon overcame this prejudice and pumpkin soon became an almost daily staple. 

Colonial Pumpkin Pie
2 cups mashed cooked pumpkin or (16 oz. can of pumpkin)
3/4 cup sugar
2 teaspoons ground cinnamon
3/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg
1/4 teaspoon ground cloves
1/2 teaspoon salt
3 slightly beaten eggs
1 cup light cream
1 unbaked 9 inch pie shell

Combine pumpkin, sugar, spices and salt. Blend in eggs and cream. Pour into pastry shell. Bake at 400 until knife inserted off center comes out clean. 40 to 50 minutes. Cool (filling may crack) 

Steamed Pumpkin Pudding
6 tablespoon butter
3/4 cup brown sugar
1/4 cup granulated sugar
2 eggs
11/2 cups all-purpose flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon ground ginger
1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg
3/4 cup mashed cooked pumpkin or canned pumpkin
1/2 cup buttermilk

Cream butter and sugar together until light. Beat in eggs. Stir together flour, salt, soda cinnamon, ginger, and nutmeg. Mix pumpkin and buttermilk; add to creamed mixture alternately with dry ingredients, mixing well after each addition. Spoon into greased and floured 6 1/2 cup ring mold. Cover tightly with foil. Bake 350 for one hour. Let stand 10 minutes. Unmold. Serve with whipped cream. Serves 12 to 16. 

Baked Glazed Squash
2 1/2 pounds of butternut squash
1/3 cup of brown sugar
2 tablespoons butter
1/4 teaspoon paprika

Slice squash in 1 inch thick slices; remove seeds. Arrange squash rings in a 13x9x2 inch baking pan. Cover with foil. Bake at 350 until almost tender, 45 to 60 minutes. Meanwhile, in saucepan combine brown sugar, butter, paprika, 1/2 teaspoon salt and dash of pepper; cook until bubbly. Spoon over squash. Continue cooking uncovered until squash until squash is tender, about 15 minutes more. Spooning mixture over squash occasionally. Serves 8. 

Brown Bread
2 cups buttermilk
3/4 cup dark molasses
1 cup raisins
1 cup whole wheat flour 1 cup rye flour 1 cup yellow cornmeal
3/4 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon salt
Boiling water

In a large mixing bowl blend together buttermilk and molasses. Stir in raisins. Thoroughly stir together whole wheat flour, rye flour, cornmeal, baking soda and salt' stir into buttermilk mixture until blended. Divide batter among three greased 20 oz food cans (or fill 4 16 oz cans.) Cover cans tightly with foil; set on a rack in a large Dutch oven. Pour boiling water into the Dutch oven to a depth of 1 inch. Cover and simmer over low heat steaming bread until done, 2 1/2 to 3 hours. Add more water as needed. Remove bread from cans and cool on a rack. Makes 3 or 4 loaves. 

Sally Lunn
1 package of active dry yeast
1/4 cup warm water (110) 
3/4 cup warm milk (110)
6 tablespoons butter
3 tablespoons sugar
2 eggs
3 cups all purpose flour
1 1/4 teaspoon salt

In a small bowl soften active dry yeast in warm water. Stir in warm milk and set aside. In a mixing bowl cream butter and sugar. Add eggs, one at a time beating after each addition. Combine flour and salt; add to creamed mixture alternately with yeast mixture. Beat well after each addition. Beat batter until smooth. Cover batter and let rise in a warm place until almost double. (about 1 hour) beat down and pour into a well greased Turk's head mold or a 9-inch tube pan. Cover and let rise in a warm place until almost double   (about 30 minutes) Bake at 350 for 40 to 45 minutes. Remove bread from mold or tube pan. Serve bread either warm or cool. Makes 1 loaf. 

Apple Butter
6 pounds of tart apples
6 cups apple cider or juice
3 cups sugar
2 teaspoons ground cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon ground cloves

Core and quarter apples; cook with cider in a large heavy saucepan until soft, about 30 minutes. Press through a food mill. Boil gently 30 minutes; stir often. Stir in sugar and spices. Cook and stir over low heat until sugar dissolves. Boil gently stirring often until desired thickness about 1 hour. Pour into hot 1/2 pint jars adjust lids Process in boiling water bath 10 minutes. (Start counting time after water returns to a boil.) Makes 8 half-pints. 

Old World Recipes in a New Land
Wherever the colonists hailed form they brought the taste of their homeland with them. The recipes often took a different twist depending on the ingredients that were available.

Various areas of the New World were settled by people from specific area in Europe. The English, the Dutch Patroons from Holland, the Huguenots from France, the Palentines from Germany and Africans brought in slave ships all carried with them their traditions and foods. 

New England Clam Chowder
1 pint shucked clams or 2 7 1/2 ounce cans of minced clams
4 ounces of salt pork minced
4 cups diced potatoes
1 1/2 cups water
1/2 cups chopped onion
2 cups milk
1 cup light cream
3 tablespoons all prupose flour
1 1/2 teaspoons salt
Dash pepper

Dice clams ( except cans) and set aside. Strain clam liquid reserving 1/2 cup. In a large saucepan fry salt pork until crisp. Remove bits of pork; set aside. To drippings add reserved clam liquid, potatoes, water, onion. Cook covered until potatoes are tender, 15 to 20 minutes. Stir in clams, 1 3/4 cups of milk, and the cream. Slowly blend remaining milk into flour; then stir into chowder. Cook and stir until boiling. Add the salt and pepper. Sprinkle reserved salt pork bits on top. Makes 6 servings. 

2 cups sugar
1 cup butter
2 eggs
1/4 cup milk
1 teaspoon vanilla
3 3/4 cups all purpose flour
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar

In a mixing bowl cream sugar and butter until light. Add eggs one at a time, beating well after each. Blend in milk and vanilla. Stir together flour, baking soda, cream of tartar and 1/2 teaspoon of salt; stir into creamed mixture. Form dough into one-inch balls. Place balls two inches apart on a greased cookie sheet. Lightly flatten balls with the sugared bottom of a tumbler. Bake at 375 until done. 10 to 12 minutes. Makes about 8 dozen. 

Pine Tree Shillings
Because the English would not allow it's colonies to mint coins, New Englanders took matters into their own hands and the Massachusetts bay Colony illegally began minting operations. In 1652 a coin was struck, one side of which bore the image of a tree. Often a pine, but sometimes an oak or willow, these coins have come to be known as Pine Tree Shillings. The cookies of that name are the size of a shilling. Was it defiance or a sense of humor that made colonists decorate the cookie by pressing the coin into the dough.

1/2 cup light molasses
1/4 cup packed brown sugar
1/4 cup lard
1 1/2 cup all purpose flour
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1/4 teaspoon baking soda
1/4 teaspoon ground ginger

In a mixing bowl cream together molasses, brown sugar and lard. Stir together flour cinnamon, baking soda, and ginger. Blend into creamed mixture. Divide into 6 portions. On lightly floured surface shape into 6 10-inch long rolls. Wrap and chill for several hours. Slice into pieces a little more than 1/4-inch thick. Place on well greased cookie sheet. Press each cookie with thumb until about 1/8-inch thick. Bake 350 about 5 to 8 minutes. Makes about 8 dozen. 

Hutspot is traditionally eaten by the citizens of the Dutch city Leyden each year on the 3rd of October. Eating this delicious traditional Dutch meal celebrates the courage of the inhabitants of Leyden who withstood a seven month siege by the Spanish army. Holding out against all odds, and suffering great hardship, the deliverance of Leyden was key in winning Dutch freedom from Spain in 1581. 

2 pounds fresh beef brisket
4 ccups water
2 teaspoons salt
3 pounds potatoes, peeled and cut in quarters (6 potatoes)
2 cups sliced carrots
1 1/2 cups chopped onions
2 tablespoons butter
1/3 cup cold water
3 tablespoons flour

In a 4-quart Dutch oven combine beef brisket, 4 cups water and salt. Cover and bring to boiling; reduce heat and simmer until meat is nearly tender. About 2 1/2 hours. Add potatoes, carrots, onion. Simmer covered until vegetables are tender, about 30 minutes. Remove meat. Drain vegetables, reserve 1 2/3 cups liquid. Add Butter to vegetables, mash. Season with salt and pepper. Blend cold water slowly into the flour. Stir into reserved liquid. Cook and stir until thick and bubbly. Slice meat, serve with gravy and mashed potatoes. Makes 6 servings. 

Everybody loved Crullers but especially the people of New Amsterdam. These crispy fried puffs were prepared in many shapes. On version was to cut into strips with a slit in the center of each strip. When one end was pulled through the slit the pastries were called "tangled britches" 

1/3 cup granulated sugar
1/4 cup butter
2 eggs
2 tablespoons milk


1 3/4 cups all-purpose flour 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg 1/4 teaspoon mace 

Fat for frying Powdered sugar 

Cream together granulated sugar and butter until light and fluffy. Add eggs, one at a time; beat well after each addition. Add milk (batter may appear slightly curdled) Stir together flour, salt, nutmeg and mace. Stir into the creamed mixture. Chill at least one hour. On a lightly floured surface roll half of the dough (rolling in one direction only) to a 16x8 inch rectangle. Cut into2 inch squares ( do not re-roll) Use a pastry wheel for pretty edges. Repeat with remaining dough. Fry in deep hot fat (375) until golden brown on both sides, about 1 1/2 minutes total. Dust with powdered sugar. Makes 64. 

Gingerbread Men
2 cups of packed brown sugar
1 1/2 cups butter, softened


4 cups all-purpose flour
2 teaspoons ground cinnamon
1 teaspoon ground nutmeg
1/2 teaspoon ground ginger
1/4 teaspoon baking soda

Currants raisins, licorice etc. for decorating 

Cream sugar and butter; add egg. Beat until light and fluffy. Stir flour with spices and baking soda; add to creamed mixture. Mix well. Cover; chill dough for about 2 hours. On floured surface, roll dough to 1/8 thickness. Cut with a gingerbread man cutter. Place on un-greased cookie sheet, decorate by pressing ingredients lightly into the cut-out figures. Bake at 350 until lightly browned, about 8 to 10 minutes. Cool 1 to 2 minutes; remove to rack. Makes about 72. 

Potatoes Scalloped with Ham
2 cups cubed, fully cooked ham
6 cups thinly sliced potatoes
1/4 cup finely chopped onion
1/3 cup flour
2 cups milk
3 tablespoons bread crumbs
1 tablespoon butter, melted
2 tablespoons snipped parsley
Salt and pepper to taste

Place half the ham in a 2-quart casserole. Cover with half the potatoes and half the onion. Sift the flour over, season with salt and pepper. Top with the remaining ham, potatoes and onion, season with additional salt and pepper. Pour milk over. Mix bread crumbs and butter, sprinkle atop. Top with parsley. Bake covered until potatoes are nearly tender, 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 hours. Uncover and bake 15 minutes more. Serves 6 to 8. 

Shoofly Pie
1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour
1/2 cup sugar
1/4 teaspoon baking soda
1/4 cup butter
1/2 cup light molasses
1/2 cup hot water
1/4 teaspoon baking soda
1 unbaked pastry shell

Thoroughly stir together the flour, sugar, 1/4 teaspoon baking soda. Cut in butter until the mixture is crumbly. Stir together molasses, hot water and 1/4 teaspoon baking soda. Pour 1/3 of the molasses mixture ito the pastry shell; sprinkle with 1/3 of the flour mixture. Repeat layers ending with a flour mixture. Bake at 375 for about 40 minutes. Cool 

Apple Pandowdy
Apple Pandowdy is a molasses or maple flavored deep-dish apple pie. Traditionally the desert is "dowdied" before serving - that is the crust is broken up with a spoon or knife and stirred in with the filling. Oddly enough, this type of "messed-up" appearance has come more often to refer to people than deserts. It is common to describe an individual as having a dowdy appearance. 

Pastry for 2-crust 9-inch pie
1/4 cup butter, melted
1/2 cup sugar
1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1/3 teaspoon ground nutmeg
dash of salt
10 cups thinly sliced peeled apples
1/2 cup molasses or maple syrup
1/4 cup water
3 tablespoon butter, melted

Roll out pastry to 15 x 11-inch rectangle; brush with some of the 1/4 cup melted butter. Fold pastry in half. Brush with more butter, fold again and seal the edges. Repeat rolling, brushing with butter and folding, Chill pastry. Mix together sugar, cinnamon, nutmeg and salt; toss with apple slices. Place in a 13 x 9 x 2-inch baking dish. Combine molasses, ( or maple syrup) water and 3 tablespoons of melted butter; pour over the apple slices. Roll pastry to 15 x 11-inch rectangle. Place over apples; turn the edges and flute. Bake at 400 for 10 minutes. Reduce heat to 325, bake 30 minutes more. Remove and "Dowdy" the crust by cutting through the crust and apples with a sharp knife. Return the pandowdy to the oven for 10 more minutes. Serve warm. Serves 6 to 8. 

Hush Puppies
According to the legend Hush Puppies were named so because they were used to quiet the hounds. This poem illustrates just how: 

Hound puppies howl in Georgia,
Hound puppies howl at home,
I 'spect dey cries in Paris,
and I hear dey squeaks in Rome.
But de hunters and de hounds, 
dey don't make a sound,
after you passes dese here pones around.

1 cup cornmeal
2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
1/4 teaspoon baking soda
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 beaten egg
3/4 cups buttermilk
3 tablespoons chopped onion

In a large bowl stir together the cornmeal, flour baking soda and slat. In a small bown stir together egg, butter milk and onion. Stir the liquid ingredients into the cornmeal mixture just until the dry ingredients are   moistened. In a 10 inch skillet melt enough lard to give a depth of 1/2 inch. Drop the batter by scant tablespoonfuls into the hot fat, spreading the batter slightly to make a patty. Fry until golden brown. Drain thoroughly on paper toweling. Serve warm. Makes 24 hush puppies 

Hoppin' John
There are several stories about how Hoppin' John got it's name. One says the children used to hop around the table before eating. Other say it was named after the custom of inviting a guest to eat by saying Hop in John." But we know no story to explain why it brings good luck and prosperity if served on New Year's Day, It just works! 

1 cup dry black-eyed peas (6 ounces)
8 cups water


6 slices bacon
3/4 cup chopped onion
1 clove garlic


1 cup regular rice
2 teaspoons salt
1/4 teaspoon pepper

Rinse black-eyed peas. In a large sauce pan combine peas, water bring to boiling, then boil for 2 minutes. Remove from heat and let stand for 1 hour. Drain reserving 6 cups cooking liquid. In a heavy 3 quart sauce pan cook the bacon, onion and garlic until the bacon is crisp and the onion is tender but not brown. Remove the bacon; drain on paper toweling, crumble and set aside. Stir the black-eyed peas, rice salt, pepper and the reserved cooking liquid into the mixture in the saucepan. Bring to boiling; cover and reduce heat. Simmer 1 hour, stirring occasionally. Stir in the crumbled bacon. Serve warm. Makes 8 servings. 

Cracklin' Bread
4 ounces finely diced pork fat (1 cup)
1 cup cornmeal
1 cup all purpose flour
1 teaspoon baking soda
3/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup buttermilk
2 beaten eggs

To make cracklin's, fry pork fat until crisp. Drain, reserving 1/3 cup drippings. In a mixing bowl stir together cornmeal, flour, baking soda, and salt. Add buttermilk, eggs, and reserved drippings; beat until smooth. Stir in cracklin's. Turn into greased 10 inch oven going skillet. Bake at 425 until done, 15 to 20 minutes. Cut in wedges. Serve warm. Makes 6 servings.